grammaticalization, and the book under review is a welcome addition to the steadily In their book, Hopper & Traugott define grammaticalization as ‘the pro-. Traugott ; Hopper & Traugott ), is a basic type of change that may lead to Claims about “constructions” and grammaticalization in earlier work. Grammaticalization: Paul J. Hopper, Elizabeth Closs Traugott, Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics, Cambridge University Press, second ed., , xx +.
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Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure 45, 27 Annual review of anthropology 25 1, Applied cognitive linguistics I: Articles 1—20 Show more. On some principles of grammaticization PJ Hopper Approaches to grammaticalization 1, Frequency and the Emergence of linguistic structure J Bybee, P Hopper Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure 45, 1 Some observations on the typology of focus and aspect in narrative language PJ Hopper Studies in Language.
Aspect between discourse and grammar: An introductory essay for the volume PJ Hopper Tense-aspect: Glottalized and murmured occlusives in Indo-European.
PJ Hopper Glossa 7 2, Some recent trends in grammaticalization PJ Hopper Annual review of anthropology 25 1, Grammatical constructions and their discourse origins:
Drachenwand Klettersteig is a route inside of Drachenwand. The Drachenwand Klettersteig is a via ferrata in Austria, near the town of Mondsee. It is classified C/D and is really fun to climb. There is also a part with. Juli Parken beim eigens für Bergsportler errichteten Parkplatz beim Gasthof Drachenwand (Parkgebühr EUR 2,00). Danach folgt der Zustieg zum.
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literature, see Diamond (), Mortensen () and Pissarides (). 6. Note, except for the lack of mass points and a finite upper support restriction, there. One of the newer concepts that can be applied to the labour market is the so- called Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides model. The authors analysed markets in. An accurate global projection algorithm is critical for quantifying the basic mo- ments of the Diamond–Mortensen–Pissarides model. Log linearization under-.
In microeconomicssearch theory studies buyers or sellers who cannot instantly find a trading partner, and must therefore search for a partner prior to transacting. Search pissaarides has been influential in many areas of economics. It has been applied in labor economics to analyze frictional unemployment resulting from job hunting pissaridee workers. In consumer theoryit has been applied to analyze purchasing decisions. From a consumer’s perspective, a product worth purchasing would have sufficiently high quality, and be offered at a sufficiently low price.
In both cases, whether a given job or product is acceptable depends on the searcher’s beliefs about the alternatives available in the market. More precisely, search theory studies an individual’s optimal strategy when choosing from a series of potential opportunities of random quality, under the diamoond that delaying choice is costly.
Search models illustrate how best to balance the cost of delay against the value of the option to try again. Mathematically, search models are optimal stopping problems.
Macroeconomists have extended search theory by studying general equilibrium models in diamons one or more types of searchers interact. These macroeconomic theories have been called ‘ matching theory ‘, or ‘search and matching theory’.
Stigler proposed thinking of searching for bargains or jobs as an economically important problem. McCall proposed a dynamic model of job search, based on the mathematical method of optimal stoppingon which much later work has been based. The worker’s optimal strategy is simply to reject any wage offer lower than the reservation wage, and accept any wage offer higher than the reservation wage.
The reservation wage may change over time if some of the conditions assumed by McCall are not met.
Search theory – Wikipedia
For example, a worker who fails to find a job might lose skills or face stigma, in which case the distribution of potential offers that worker might receive will get worse, the longer he or she is unemployed. In this case, the worker’s optimal reservation wage will decline over time. Likewise, if the worker is risk aversethe reservation wage will decline over time if the worker gradually runs out of money while searching. An interesting observation about McCall’s model is that greater variance of offers may make the searcher better off, and prolong optimal search, even if he or she is risk averse.
This is because when there is more variation in wage offers holding fixed the meanthe searcher may want to wait longer that is, set a higher reservation wage in hopes of receiving an exceptionally high wage offer. The possibility of receiving some exceptionally low offers has less impact on the reservation wage, since bad offers can be turned down.
While McCall framed his theory in terms of the wage search decision of an unemployed worker, similar insights are applicable to a consumer’s search for a low price. In that context, the highest price a consumer is willing to pay for a particular good is called the reservation price. Opportunities might provide payoffs from different distributions.
Costs of sampling may vary from an opportunity to another. As a result, some opportunities appear more profitable to sample than others. These problems are referred to as Pandora box problems introduced by Martin Weitzman. Pandora opens boxes, but will only enjoy the best opportunity. It can be proven Pandora associates to each box a reservation value. Her optimal strategy is to open the boxes by decreasing order of reservation value until the opened box that maximizes her payoff exceed highest reservation value of the remaining boxes.
Diamondd strategy is referred as the Pandora’s rule. In fact, the Pandora’s rule remains the optimal sampling strategy for morensen payoff functions.
Wojciech Olszewski and Richard Weber  show that Pandora’s rule is optimal if she maximizes. Studying optimal search from a given distribution of prices led economists to ask why the same good should ever be sold, in equilibrium, at more than one price. After all, this is by definition a violation of the law of one price.
However, when buyers do not have perfect information about where to find the lowest price that is, whenever search is necessarynot all sellers may wish to offer the same price, because there is a trade-off between the frequency and the profitability of their sales.
That is, firms may be indifferent between posting a diamodn price thus selling infrequently, only to those consumers with the highest reservation prices and a low price at which they will sell more often, because it will fall below the reservation price of more consumers. When the searcher does not even know the distribution of offers, then there morrtensen an additional motive for search: Search from one or more unknown distributions is called a multi-armed bandit problem.
Peter A. Diamond, Dale T. Mortensen, Christopher A. Pissarides |
The name comes from the slang term ‘one-armed bandit’ for a casino slot machine, and refers to the case in which the only way to learn about the distribution of rewards from a given slot machine is by actually playing that machine. Optimal search strategies for an unknown distribution have been analyzed using allocation indices such as the Gittins index.
More recently, job search, and other types of search, have been incorporated into macroeconomic modelsusing a framework called ‘matching theory’. DiamondDale Mortensenand Christopher A. Pissarides won the Nobel prize in economics for their work on matching theory. In models of matching in the labor market, two types of search interact. That is, the rate at which new jobs are formed is assumed to depend both on workers’ search decisions, and on firms’ decisions to open job vacancies.
While some matching models include a distribution of different wages,  others are simplified by ignoring wage differences, and just imply that workers pass through an unemployment spell of random length before beginning work.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the economics of search problems. For other uses of ‘search’, see Searching disambiguation.
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Journal of Political Economy. The Handbook of Labor Economics.
Recursive Methods in Economic Dynamics. Quantitative Methods and Applications. Quarterly Journal of Economics.
Studies in the Economics of Search. Journal of Economic Theory. Review of Economic Studies. Equilibrium Unemployment Theory 2nd ed. Retrieved from ” https: Labour economics Microeconomic theories. Articles needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references.
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Method This work involved documentary research by means of thematic categorical analysis of the laws and statutes promulgated ocupaciomal 20 th century Colombia, considering the main element or entity which should have regulated that related to professional risk or compendio de normas legales sobre salud ocupacional health.
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Objective Analyzing the compendioo th century Colombian legal framework from the point of view of labor law, social security and public health for identifying concepts regarding occupational health and professional risk and trying to establish convergence legalees differences between such foci and whether they fulfilled a nirmas view.
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Dose attenuation by a carbon fiber linac couch and modeling with a treatment planning system; Medida de la atenuacion producida por la mesa de tratamiento de un acelerador lineal y su modelado en un sistema de planificacion. The purpose of this work is to investigate the attenuation caused by a carbon fiber linac treatment couch and the ability of a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system to simulate it.
Both 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams were studied. Measured and computed attenuation values were compared. As a result we found that the attenuation caused by dat complex treatment couch is strongly dependent on the incidence angle of the beam.
The model incorporated to the treatment planning software allows aceleradod the differences between measured and calculated data below 2. In conclusion, it is strongly recommended accounting for the perturbation caused by this carbon fiber treatment couch when the beam intersects it.
The treatment planning system studied can simulate this treatment couch accurately. Clinical implementation of the described method requires a reliable procedure to reproduce the same patient geometry in the treatment delivery and planning. Procedure to measure the neutrons spectrum around a lineal accelerator for radiotherapy; Procedimiento para medir el espectro de los neutrones en torno a un acelerador lineal para radioterapia.
ace,erados PostalZacatecas Mexico. An experimental procedure was developed, by means of Bonner spheres, to measure the neutrons spectrum around Linacs of medical use that only requires of a single shot of the accelerator; to this procedure we denominate Planetary or Isocentric method.
One of the problems associated to the neutrons spectrum measurement in a radiotherapy room with lineal accelerator is because inside the room a mixed, intense and pulsed radiation field takes place affecting the detection systems based on active detector; this situation is solved using a passive detector.
In the case of the Bonner spheres spectrometer the active detector has been substituted by activation detectors, trace detectors or thermoluminescent dosimeters. This spectrometer uses several spheres that are situated one at a time in the measurement point, this way to have the complete measurements group the accelerator should be operated, under the same conditions, so many times like spheres have the spectrometer, this activity can consume a long time and in occasions due to the work load of Linac to complicate the measurement process too.
The procedure developed in this work consisted on to situate all the spectrometer spheres at the same time and to make the reading by means of a single shot, to be able to apply this procedure, is necessary that before the measurements two characteristics are evaluated: This method has been applied to determine the photo-neutrons spectrum produced by a lineal accelerator of medical use Varian ix of 15 MV to cm of the isocenter located to 5 cm of depth of a solid water mannequin of 30 x 30 x 15 cm.
The spectrum was used to determine the total flow and the environmental dose equivalent.
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Planetary method to measure the neutrons spectrum in lineal accelerators of medical use; Metodo planetario para medir el espectro de neutrones en aceleradores lineales de uso medico. A novel procedure to measure the neutrons spectrum originated in a lineal accelerator of medical use has been developed. The method uses a passive spectrometer of Bonner spheres.
The main advantage of the method is that only requires of a single shot of the accelerator. When this is used around a lineal accelerator is necessary to operate it under the same conditions so many times like the spheres that contain the spectrometer, activity that consumes enough time.
The developed procedure consists on situating all the spheres of the spectrometer at the same time and to realize the reading making a single shot. With this method the photo neutrons spectrum produced by a lineal accelerator Varian ix of 15 MV to cm of the isocenter was determined, with the spectrum is determined the total flow and the ambient dose equivalent. Neutron activation processes in the medical linear accelerator Elekta Precise; Procesos de activacion neutronica en el acelerador lineal medico Elekta Precise.
Each component of Linac head geometry and materials were modelled in detail using the given manufacturer information. The MCNP6 was used to develop a method for quantifying the activation of accelerator components. The approach described in this paper is useful in quantifying the origin and the amount of nuclear activation. To compare the output factors obtained in a linear accelerator with conical collimators using five models of detectors, through tree different methods: A linear accelerator Varian-iX was employed with BrainLab conical collimators 30 mm to 7.
For the first three models were analyzed two detectors with different series.
The measurements were carried out in water at depth of 1. With the readings ratio method, all detectors showed differences from 3. In small fields the readings ratio method could introduce significant errors in the output factor determination.
Applying the k fclin, fmsr Qclin, Qmsr proved to be a viable option. Dosimetry of the energy of the electrons beam and virtual distance of the source of a lineal accelerator; Dosimetria de la energia del haz de electrones y distancia virtual de la fuente de un acelerador lineal. The objectives of this work were to characterize, to gauge the energy of a electrons beam of 12 MeV and to sylbia the virtual distance of the source for a lineal accelerator Trilogy-Varian. For sylvis characterization, calibration and to find the virtual distance of the source of a lineal accelerator Trilogy-Varian, a water phantom was used cylindrical Cuba 3-D of Sun-Nuclear.
The following values were found: The electrons beam of 12 MeV was characterized and gauged satisfactorily, were carried out the In-plane and Cross-plane profiles, obtaining all the parameters inside the acceptance limit.
The virtual distance of the source was of ,81 cm. In radiotherapy beams of high energy photons produced lower doses in the aclerados and a lower dose dispersed into surrounding healthy tissue.
However, when operating above 10 MV, Linacs have some drawbacks such as the generation of photo-neutrons and activation of some components of the accelerator.
The launch and capture of neutrons produce radioactive nuclei that can radiate even when the accelerator is not working. These reactions occur mainly in the heavier materials of the head accelerator. This syylvia has studied the activation generated isotopes resulting, concluding that these derived doses are not negligible. La falta de financiacion publica hipoteca el futuro del acelerador de protones valenciano.
La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de este dispositivo de alta tecnologia. Determination of the neutron spectra in the treatment room of a linear accelerator for radiotherapy; Determinacion de los espectros de neutrones en la sala de tratamiento de un acelerador lineal para radioterapia.
By means of a series of measures and Monte Carlo calculations the dosimetric characteristics of the photoneutrons have been determined that take place in volume to a linear accelerator of radiotherapy of 18 MV, LINACmark Siemens Mevatron model. The measures were carried out with thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD and TLD that were naked exposed and confined with cover of Cd and Sn, inside a sphere of paraffin and inside spheres Bonner.
Industrial Sterilization st the Electron Linear-Accelerator Facility at Risoe; Sterilisation industrielle a l’aide de l’accelerateur lineaire d’electrons de Riso; Promyshlennaya sterilizatsiya oblucheniem na linejnom uskoritele ehlektronov v Rizo; Esterilizacion industrial con ayuda del acelerador lineal de electrones de Riso.
L’accelerateur lineaire de Riso a ete utilise a cette fin, en particulier pour l’irradiation sous aceleradoos d’instruments medicaux non recuperables pour le compte d’entreprises industrielles.
L’accelerateur lineaire produit un faisceau stable d’electrons de 10 MeV a une puissance moyenne de 5 kW. Le faisceau peut s’extraire, soit en ligne droite, soit par un dispositif de deviation. Le faisceau ainsi devie est utilise pour l’irradiation. On obtient ainsi une large gamme de doses sans avoir a modifier l e reglage de l’accelerateur.
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L’installation fonctionne depuis l’automne pour les centres acelefados danois et depuis pour la sterilisation industrielle d’instruments medicaux tels aceleradoe seringues, sondes, appareils de transfusion et infusion, etc. Le nombre de paquets traites a augmente pour atteindre au cours du premier trimestre de Beaucoup d’efforts ont ete consacres au perfectionnement des methodes d’irradiation, notamment l’application des systemes de reflecteurs, le reglage automatique de la dose, les operations de dosimetrie courante et l’emploi d’indicateurs chromatiques.
Les auteurs exposent brievement tous les details techniques importants et decrivent le procede de sterilisation y Compris la manutention, le controle et la dosimetrie. Enfin, ils donnent quelques chiffres sur les frais d e fonctionnement. El aparato instalado en Riso se utiliza, entre otros fines, pata la irradiacion de articulos medicos no recuperables que se efectua.
San Rafael AtlixcoCol. Vicentina, Mexico D. Mexico ; Herrera, A. The thermoluminescence Tl is based on the principle of the luminescent in a material when is heated below their incandescence temperature.
Is a technique very used in dosimetry that is based on the property that have most of the crystalline materials regarding the storage of the energy that they absorb when are exposed to the ionizing radiations. When this material has been irradiated previously, the radioactive energy that contains is liberated in form of light. In general, the principles that govern the thermoluminescence are in essence the same of those responsible for all the luminescent processes and, this way, the thermoluminescence is one of the processes that are part of the luminescence phenomenon.
With the dosimeters already characterized and calibrated, we proceeded to measure the dispersed radiation being a patient in treatment. The results showed values for the dispersed radiation the order of a third of the dose received by the patient on the treatment table at 30 cm of the direct beam and the order of a hundredth in the control area 4 m of the direct beam, approximately.
Proyecto de blindaje de un acelerador de electrones con finalidad de radioterapia. Ambient dose equivalent and personal points due to photoneutrons outside a facility that houses a linear accelerator of 18 MV varian; Equivalente de dosis ambiental y personal debida a fotoneutrones en puntos externos a una instalacion que alberga un acelerador lineal varian de 18 MV.
The use of linear accelerators linacs with energies above 10 MV radiotherapy treatments RT and IMRT, can improve the distribution of the absorbed dose in the treated area, increasing the effectiveness of radiation treatments.
However and as shown in the scientific literature, the production of photoneutrons for energies above 10 MeV can contribute to exposure of both patient and occupationally exposed workers and the public in the vicinity of the installation.
It is therefore necessary to determine the aceleradoz of ambient dose equivalent and staff both inside and outside the facilities that house these accelerators, especially for energies of 15 and 18 MV. Castelo e Silva, L. The main challenges on the computational modeling of this system are reported and discussed for didactic purposes in the area of modeling and simulation. Dosimetric comparison on tissue interfaces with TLD dosimeters, L-alanine, EDR2 films and Penelope simulation for acdlerados Co source and linear accelerator in radiotherapy; Comparacion dosimetrica en interfaces de tejidos con dosimetros TLD, L-alanina, peliculas EDR2 y simulacion Penelope para una aceleradoa de Co y acelerador lineal en radioterapia.
Percentage depth dose curves were obtained with TLD dosimeters, EDR2 films and Penelope simulation at the interfaces in an inhomogeneous mannequin, composed aceldrados equivalent materials to the human body built for xylvia study, consisting of cylindrical plates of solid water-bone-lung-bone-solid water of 15 cm in diameter and 1 cm in height; plates were placed in descending way The TLD dosimeters were placed in the center of each plate of mannequin irradiated at 10 Gy.
This study was compared with the same characteristics of another study realized with other equivalent materials to human body not homogeneous acrylic-bone-cork-bone-acrylic. The percentage depth dose curves were obtained with mini-dosimeters L-alanine of 1 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height and 3.
The results of percentage depth dose of L-alanine mini-dosimeters show a good agreement with the percentage depth dose curves of Penelope code, better than Control aceleradoa robusto de sistemas no lineales diferencialmente planos. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se proponen controladores basados en observadores lineales para el control robusto de una clase amplia de sistemas no lineales conocidos como sistemas diferencialmente planos, sean estos monovariables o multivariables.
The principle of linear induction acslerados is described, and examples are given of practical configurations for induction linacs. A related concept, the auto accelerator, is described in which the high-current electron-beam technology in the sub MeV region is exploited to produce electron beams at energies perhaps as high as the to MeV range.
Induction linacs for ions are also discussed. The efficiency of induction linear acceleration is analyzed. A study was made of the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field. These machines were classified according to their use: In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: Industrial machines discussed include linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications.
In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed.
Documents Similar To Mahakaal Mahakala Samhita. Sharada Tilaka Tantram I – Sudhakar Malaviya. Uploaded by. balinesegraviton. Mantra Mahodadhi 1. Mahakala Samhita (Set of 6 Volumes) [Prof. Radheshyam Chaturvedi] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Language: Sanskrit Text with Hindi. Download Mahakala Samhita Mahakala Samhita. April 24, | Author: Андрей Вознесенский | Category: N/A. DOWNLOAD PDF – MB. Share Embed.
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Danfoss thermostatically operated valve type AVTA, BVTS, WVS, WVTS, FJVA and thermal safety valves are often discribed as fit and forget valves due to their. 2. Danfoss A/S Thermostatically operated cooling water valves. Type AVTA. Contents. Page. Introduction. N Danfoss AVTA 25 – with adsorption charge AVTA thermostatic valves are widely used for temperature control in many different sorts of equipment.
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Lichen Scrofulosorum. A 9-year-old boy presented with asymptomatic, skin colored, grouped papules with mild scaling on elbows, buttocks, knees, and dorsa of. Lichen scrofulosorum is a tuberculid that is usually seen in children or young adults. Although a rare occurrence, this tuberculid is an important marker of occult. In lichen scrofulosorum there is a superficial inflammatory reaction about hair follicles and sweat ducts which may include tuberculoid granulomas. Acid-fast.
The lesions are usually asymptomatic, closely grouped, skin-colored to reddish-brown papules, often perifollicular, and are mainly found on scroffulosorum abdomen, chest, back, and proximal parts of the limbs. The eruption is usually associated with a strongly positive tuberculin reaction. Diagnosis of these lesions can be difficult, as they resemble many other dermatological conditions that are often primarily considered.
We report a case of lichen scrofulosorum in an adult male without any focus of tuberculosis. He responded promptly to antitubercular therapy with complete clearance of lesions in one month. Lichen scrofulosorum LS also known as tuberculosis TB cutis lichenoides, is a rare tuberculid that presents as a lichenoid eruption of minute papules in children and adolescents with TB.
Lichen scrofulosorum: A diagnosis overlooked
We report a case of year-old male who presented to us with multiple small erythematous to skin-colored, mostly perifollicular papules over forearms [ Figure 1 ], dorsum of hands [ Figure 2 ], shoulders, forehead [ Figure 3 ] and scapular region since 15 days. The lesions were mildly itchy. There was no history of fever, cough, anorexia, weight loss, or any other systemic symptoms.
He had no past or family history of TB. No lymphadenopathy or organomegaly was present. Systemic examination of the respiratory, cardiovascular, abdominal and central nervous systems did not reveal any abnormalities. Examination of hair, nails and mucosal surfaces was normal. Initially, the patient was treated as a case of miliaria and given calamine lotion; however, when there was no improvement after 1 week, other differentials like LS, keratosis pilaris, lichen spinulosis, lichen nitidus, and secondary syphilis were considered.
Lichen scrofulosorum: A diagnosis overlooked
X ray chest was done which was normal; USG abdomen was also insignificant; and Mantoux test was strongly positive [ Figure 4 ] with 18 mm induration, which pointed toward an active tubercular process. A biopsy was done which showed focal lichenoid tuberculoid granulomatous inflammation. Granuloma in the papillary dermis was impinging scrofuloslrum the epidermis, which showed mild spongiotic psoriasiform changes.
Cutaneous nerves were spared. This confirmed the diagnosis of LS. No tubercular foci could be detected on screening. Patient was started on CAT I antitubercular therapy ATT with four drugs rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide for the first two months, followed by rifampicin and isoniazid for six months. Tuberculids are a group of skin conditions associated with an underlying or silent focus of TB. Conditions in this group include: LS is a rare tuberculid, initially described by Hebra scroofulosorum Histology shows non-caseating, epithelioid cell granulomas in upper dermis and around dermal appendages.
Tubercle bacilli are almost never seen in the histology specimen, neither can they scrofulsoorum cultured. However, rarely antigen of mycobacterial TB has been demonstrated in papulonecrotic tuberculid, another type of more frequently licgen tuberculid.
In a study of 39 cases of LS by Singhal et al. The differential diagnosis may include lichen spinulosus, lichen nitidus, keratosis pilaris, pityriasis rubra pilaris, and lichenoid sarcoidosis. Correct diagnosis of LS is frequently delayed because of its rarity and clinical similarity to many other more common skin conditions. However, it should be considered in patients presenting with persistent papular lesions not responding to other therapies.
It is imperative that dermatologists have a high index of suspicion in order to quickly diagnose and treat this condition.
Lichen scrofulosorum – Wikipedia
A proper history and physical examination as well as diligent laboratory and diagnostic testing can determine the presence of occult tubercular focus; substantial morbidity can be prevented by very effective conventional ATT. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Indian Dermatol Online J. Priyanka SinghalPankil H. Pateland Yogesh S. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Lichen scrofulosorum, tuberculid, anti-tubercular therapy. CASE REPORT We report a case of year-old male who presented to us with multiple small erythematous to skin-colored, mostly perifollicular papules over forearms [ Figure 1 ], dorsum of hands [ Figure 2 ], shoulders, forehead [ Figure 3 ] and scapular region since 15 days.
Open in a separate window. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil Conflict of Interest: Rook’s Textbook of Dermatology. Diseases of the skin. New Sydenham Society; Development of a polymerase chain reaction dot-blotting system for detecting cutaneous tuberculosis.
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